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Our Cannabinoid Product Guide...

CBD

CBD products that don't contain THC fall outside the scope of the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency's (DEA) Controlled Substances Act, which means CBD products are legal to sell and consume as long as they don't have THC. That's likely one of the reasons why CBD products, including CBD oil, are becoming more socially acceptable and increasingly popular. In 2016, Forbes reported that CBD products are expected to be a $2.2 billion industry by 2020.

Cannabidiol—CBD—is a cannabis compound that has significant medical benefits, but does not make people feel “stoned” and can actually counteract the psychoactivity of THC. The fact that CBD-rich cannabis is non-psychoactive or less psychoactive than THC-dominant strains makes it an appealing option for patients looking for relief from inflammation, pain, anxiety, psychosis, seizures, spasms, and other conditions without disconcerting feelings of lethargy or dysphoria.

Scientific and clinical research—much of it sponsored by the US government—underscores CBD’s potential as a treatment for a wide range of conditions, including arthritis, diabetes, alcoholism, MS, chronic pain, schizophrenia, PTSD, depression, antibiotic-resistant infections, epilepsy, and other neurological disorders. CBD has demonstrable neuroprotective and neurogenic effects, and its anti-cancer properties are currently being investigated at several academic research centers in the United States and elsewhere. Further evidence suggests that CBD is safe even at high doses.

CBDA

There are approximately 113 different cannabinoids that have been isolated from cannabis, and those that have been studied exhibit a variety of effects 1. In the marketplace, we have access to about six: THC, CBD, THCa, CBDa, CBN, and CBG. As technology improves and companies mature, new products featuring additional cannabinoids are beginning to become available, including products with delta-8 THC, THCv, and CBC.

The cannabinoids that have the suffix –a are called acidic cannabinoids. When acidic cannabinoids are exposed to heat or to prolonged light, they convert to an activated cannabinoid. For example, THCa and CBDa are acidic cannabinoids, while THC and CBD are activated cannabinoids. This conversion process is called decarboxylation. Why should you care about decarboxylation?

Because—while there are some overlapping therapeutic properties—some of the acidic forms of cannabinoids can have very different effects than their activated counterparts.

There is currently limited scientific information on the pharmacology and toxicology of the acidic cannabinoids. This blog will focus on CBDa, and the data that is available suggests that CBDa might be effective at treating the following conditions:


Nausea and Vomiting:

A 2012 and a 2013 study both demonstrated that CBDa reduces vomiting and nausea (in fact, these studies—both done in rat models—suggested that CBDa was more effective than CBD in controlling nausea and vomiting). CBDa is also effective at treating anticipatory nausea and vomiting, which is a condition of psychological nausea and vomiting and is believed to be a learned response to chemotherapy

Inflammation:

To date, there are no completed human or animal studies to test whether CBDa is a treatment for inflammatory conditions. However, research in cell cultures demonstrates that CBDa is a COX-2 inhibitor and might have similar effects as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS), such as ibuprofen, acetaminophen, and aspirin, which are often prescribed for inflammatory pain.

Long-term and heavy use of NSAIDS, however, can lead to stomach ulcers, kidney damage, high blood pressure, and headaches, mostly because many NSAIDS are both COX-2 and COX-1 inhibitors. Cox-1 inhibitors also reduce inflammation, but data suggests that COX-1 inhibitors decrease the protective mucus lining of the stomach, causing stomach problems, intestinal bleeding, and ulcers. CBDa is not a COX-1 inhibitor.

Cancer

COX-2 activity is involved not only in inflammatory processes but also in the metastasis—or spreading—of cancer cells. Research suggests that the regular consumption of COX inhibitors might lower the rates of cancer, especially for colorectal cancer5. Research suggests that CBDa, as a COX-2 inhibitor, might reduce cancer cell proliferation, promote the natural death of diseased cells, and reduce the blood supply required for tumor growth. For example, a study publish in 2012 demonstrated that CBDa inhibits migration of a specific type of invasive breast cancer cell7, preventing these cancer cells from growing and dividing. And a study published in 2014 demonstrated that CBDa slowed down the spread of cancerous cells, which is especially critical in breast cancer, where metastases are responsible for 90% of breast cancer-related deaths9.

Of course, like all cannabinoids, CBDa can have side effects, though they are generally well-tolerated and dose-dependent. And, again, there exists limited scientific information on the pharmacology and toxicology of CBDa. However, based on patient feedback—and assumptions about the similarities that CBDa shares with CBD—we can expect CBDa to have side effects that include anxiety, jitteriness, diarrhea, and increased heart rate, and decreased appetite. Also, CBDa can inhibit or potentiate other medications.

Some patients find relief by juicing raw cannabis flowers that are high in CBDa. Patients can also find CBDa in tinctures and oils, which they can consume orally or use topically. Finally, there are some products that contain CBDa isolates, which means that they product was processed to remove all other cannabinoids. As with all acidic cannabinoids, it’s a good idea to keep CBDa refrigerated to prevent it from converting into an activated cannabinoid.

Many patients find that CBDa can be a potent natural pain reliever without the risk of ulcers or kidney damage. Radicle Health patients have reported that CBDa reduces inflammation, pain, and fatigue, and other patients have reported improvement with ADHD and with cognition. Also, CBDa does not cause the type of euphoria associated with THC, so patients can use CBDa during the day without any impairing side effects.

As always, ensure that you work with a cannabis healthcare professional to determine which cannabinoids and which products are right for your condition or disease.

1 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26836472

2 “The effects of cannabidiolic acid and cannabidiol on contractility of the gastrointestinal tract of Suncus murinus,” Archives of Pharmacal Research, 2011, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21975813

3 “Cannabidiolic acid prevents vomiting in Suncus murinus and nausea-induced behaviour in rats by enhancing 5-HT1A receptor activation,” British Journal of Pharmacology, 2013 Mar; 168(6): 1456–1470, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3596650/

4 “A comparison of cannabidiolic acid with other treatments for anticipatory nausea using a rat model of contextually elicited conditioned gaping,” Psychopharmacology, August 2014, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24595502

5 https://web.archive.org/web/20080509195022/http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/APCtrialCOX2QandA

6 https://web.archive.org/web/20080509195022/http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/APCtrialCOX2QandA

7 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4009504/

8 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25242400

9 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25242400

CBG

There are approximately 113 different cannabinoids that have been isolated from cannabis, and those that have been studied exhibit a variety of effects 1. In the marketplace, we have access to about six: THC, CBD, THCa, CBDa, CBN, and CBG. As technology improves and companies mature, new products featuring additional cannabinoids are beginning to become available, including products with delta-8 THC, THCv, and CBC. This blog will focus on CBG.

There is little research exploring the effects of CBG—research is currently limited to in vitro (tests done in test tubes, culture dishes, or anywhere outside of a living organism) and in rodent models—there exists no clinical research in humans. One reason that so little research exists is that CBG is not typically found in high concentrations in dried or cured cannabis plants, except in industrial hemp varieties 2.

The data that is available suggests that CBG might be effective at treating the following conditions:

Inflammation

A study published in 20133 stated that CBG has anti-inflammatory properties and that it could be considered as a treatment for patients suffering from intestinal bowel disease.

Glaucoma

A 2009 study4 demonstrated that CBG might have therapeutic potential for the treatment of glaucoma as it might increase fluid drainage and decrease pressure in the eye.

Neurological Disorders

In a study completed in early 20155 CBG demonstrated neuroprotective effects in mice with Huntington’s disease (it protects and preserves the nerves of the brain from injury, disease, and degeneration). There is currently no effective treatment for Huntington’s disease. CBG might also provide neuroprotection in patients with Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke patients.

Cancer

A study from 20146 demonstrated that CBG inhibited the progression of colon cancer in mice7 and another study8 suggested that CBG might also help protect from prostate cancer. A very old study9 done on mice suggested that CBG might be effective at treating skin melanoma cells.

Bladder dysfunction

A study10 done in vitro suggested that CBG was the most effective cannabinoid for treating bladder dysfunctions because it decreased bladder contractions.

Appetite Issues

CBG has been shown to increase appetite in two rat-based studies conducted by researchers at the University of Reading (UK) in 201611 and 201712.

Anxiety

Dr. Bonni Goldstein has suggested that CBG can decrease anxiety and muscle tension, and appears to have antidepressant and some modest antifungal properties.


Additionally, Radicle Health patients have reported success when using CBG to help treat anxiety, migraines, mild pain, and hot flashes.

Overall, CBG is very safe. It has no impairing effects, no toxic dose, no withdrawal effects, and no risk of addiction. CBG can be a safe option for use in pediatric and geriatric populations and in patients with a history of psychosis or schizophrenia.

1 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26836472

2 https://www.medicaljane.com/2013/08/03/cannabigerol-cbg-is-a-minor-cannabinoid-with-major-impact/

3 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006295213000543

4 http://online.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/jop.1990.6.259

5 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25252936

6 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25269802

7 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3570006/

8 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3570006/

9 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02976895

10 http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/26197538